India modernising nuclear arsenal with eye on China: US experts

India modernising nuclear arsenal with eye on China: US experts

India modernising nuclear arsenal with eye on China: US experts

WASHINGTON: India continues to modernize its nuclear arsenal with an eye on China and its nuclear strategy, which traditionally focuses on Pakistan, seems to accentuate the emphasis on the communist giant, two top US nuclear experts said.

A section of experts, published in the July-August issue of the digital newspaper After midnight also said India is developing a missile that can target all of China from its bases in southern India.

It is estimated that India produces about 600 kilograms of plutonium, sufficient for 150-200 og. nuclear; However, all the material has not been converted into warheads, according to the article.

It has probably occurred as 120-130, wrote Hans M Kristensen and Robert S Norris in the article entitled “Nuclear Forces of India 2017”.

“While India has traditionally focused on the deterrence of Pakistan’s nuclear modernization it indicates that it puts more emphasis on future strategic relations with China,” they wrote.

“This adjustment will translate into a considerable deployment of new capacity over the next decade that could influence how India views the role of nuclear weapons in Pakistan’s face,” they said.

Noting that India continues to modernize its nuclear arsenal with the development of several new nuclear weapon systems, both experts believe that New Delhi currently operates seven nuclear systems: two land planes, four ballistic missiles and Balite seamen missiles.

“At least four other systems are under development. The development program is taking place in a dynamic phase, with long-range land and sea missiles for possible deployment emerging over the next decade,” he said.

Kristensen and Norris said the Agni-2 two-stage solid fuel-mobile-rail, an improvement on the Agni-1, which can deliver a nuclear or conventional head of more than 2 000 km is probably headed west, center and south from China.

While Agni-4 is able to reach targets in most of China from northeastern India (including Beijing and Shanghai), India is also developing Agni-5, three-tier solid fuels, mobile train near a missile Intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) capable of carrying an explosive charge of more than 5,000 kilometers (3,100 extra miles), he said.

“The additional scope will allow Indian military to establish Agni-5 bases in central and southern India, away from China,” said the research work.

What goes around comes around: Ravi Shastri

What goes around comes around: Ravi Shastri

What goes around comes around: Ravi Shastri

MUMBAI: The suspense surrounding the new coach of India finally ended with Ravi Shastri. Shastri – a favorite among players for their communication skills – will join the team during the long tour of Sri Lanka from 19 July. He addressed TOI on Wednesday his plans.

Extracts …
That finally got the paper that has justified that there are almost two seasons …
My job is to continue from where I left off. I am the type of person who does not like to carry unnecessary luggage. This is not the way I have lived my life and I continued my cricket. I like to live in the present and to take each day as it comes.

And I like challenges. The core of the team is the same. The support staff is the same. It is the establishment included myself until mid-2016, of which I know. He had not applied the first time because he did not understand the gravity of the situation.

What made you submit a request again?

I had not really thought about the gravity of the situation. There was nothing personal. I really did not begin to understand the seriousness of this.

But when I sat down and thought seriously, I began to think: this is a unit that belonged and had a great working relationship. I am part of the unit that helped him become number one. I thought that now corresponds to run again in the interest of all involved.

I do not even know what happened to the drama. I will press the update button and start from where I left it.

It comes with communication and clarity of thought. When the person with whom you are dealing is comfortable in both respects, things move very well.

Then, of course, there is a mutual respect that is very important in all professional relationships. It is always a two-lane street. Players should know where to draw the line, too.

What are your views on coaching at the highest level?

At the highest level, cricket players are more or less resolved. It is more important to work with your mental strength, to help build your confidence, which helps you stay organized in your daily activities versus playing with your playing style.

It is not a question of the “tutorer” of everything and tell them what to do and what not to do. There is very little training at the highest level. This is a refinement and a mentoring, effective communication.

There has been a lot of talk about how the captain should call the shots …
Absolutely. He is always the captain of the team and is the leader who has the last word. This is the way he has always worked. The role of a coach is to stay in the background and let the players charge.

Many words have been exchanged between the user and certain members of the Cricket Advisory Committee (CAC) …

I am firmly convinced of destiny. I have always believed that what happens happens. Let’s focus on what is happening, not what is left.
You worked with support staff …

The support staff was wonderful. They are there from day one and did a great job.

I will have to sit down with the authorities to find some future time here, especially in relation to support staff. There are many trips and if I am responsible to work with the facility 200 days a year, that is what should work in my reservation, right?

We’ll see. I’ll speak first with Virat and Sanjay (Bangar) and we can call. All I’m going to say right now is that I have the right to call the support staff, as I will work closely with them for the next two years.

Sasikala paid Rs 2 crore bribe for VIP treatment in jail: DIG report

Sasikala paid Rs 2 crore bribe for VIP treatment in jail: DIG report

Sasikala paid Rs 2 crore bribe for VIP treatment in jail: DIG report

In the midst of speculation that the former general secretary of treatment Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK) V Sasikala receiving in the central prison of Parappana Agrahara in which he is lodging in a case of corruption, the report of the assistant inspector general DIG) (prisons) Roopa D claimed a pot of Rs worth 2 million rupees wine was given to prison officials, including the general manager (prisons) to benefit from special facilities.

Roopa in a report to the Director General (prisons) HN Satyanarayana Rao said that there was speculation that Sasikala paid thanks to the prison authorities to provide special facilities for himself with rumors as DG to be beneficiary himself.

The letter, in addition to information about Sasikala, also speaks of many other illegal cases within the prison.

A special kitchen was created for Sasikala, which is against the rule of prison.
Roopa Also mentioned the stamp paper Abdul Kareem accused scam also have special facilities.

“Before, he was in a wheelchair and the court allowed people to help.” But now, when so, why does he continue? In fact, three or four subtitles are there to serve, they even gave him massage of Feet and hands, “says the letter.

She also mentioned that she received a medical examination of the prisoners and that in the drug test, it was revealed that many of those detained use safe the different types of drug kits in prison.

Look: Poster Sasikala Natarjan eliminates AIADMK headquarters

He even exposes a prisoner in jail who had tried to sexually assault a nurse at the hospital while the check was sold, but no action was taken.

Roopa even stressed that prisoners harass doctors to prepare a false report stating that they are moving in the hospital, citing health reasons.

He also said that the DGP was trying to interfere with his work. She said a memo was sent by the DGP seeking an explanation as to why she went to the central prison on July 10.

Roopa also sent the report to other secretaries major prisons of the DGP and the country secretary to take disciplinary action against the culprit.

Smallest-ever star discovered by astronomers

Smallest-ever star discovered by astronomers

Smallest-ever star discovered by astronomers

The smallest but equal star was discovered by a team of astronomers led by the University of Cambridge. With a size of only more ribbons than Saturn, the force of gravity on its stellar surface is approximately 300 times stronger than the experience of humans on Earth.

The star is probably as small as stars can become as it has enough mass to allow hydrogen to melt in helium nuclei.

If it was smaller, the pressure in the center of the star would not be enough for this process to occur. Hydrogen fusion is also forcing the sun, and scientists try to reproduce it as a powerful source of energy on Earth.

These stars are very small and tender also the best possible candidates for detecting Earth-sized planets that may have liquid water on their surface, such as TRAPENSE-1, an ultra-cool dwarf surrounded by seven earth-tempered worlds.
The newly measured star, called EBLM J0555-57Ab, is about six hundred light-years away.

It is part of a binary system and has been identified as being overtaken by its much higher companion, a method generally used to detect planets, not stars. The details will be published in the journal Astronomy & Astrophysics.

“Our discovery reveals how small stars can be,” said Alexander Boetticher, lead author of the study and a master’s student at Cambridge’s Cavendish Laboratory and Institute of Astronomy.

“If this star only formed a slightly lower mass, the hydrogen fusion reactions at its core could not be sustained, and the star was transformed into brown dwarf.”

EBLM J0555-57Ab was identified by WASP, a research experiment carried out by the planet Universities of Keele, Warwick, Leicester and St. Andrews. EBLM J0555-57Ab was detected as it passed in front of or in transit, its parent’s largest star, forming what is called an eclipsed stellar binary system.

The mother became the most moderate star periodically, the signature of an object in orbit. With this special configuration, researchers can accurately measure the mass and size of all traveling companions in orbit, in this case, a small star. The mass of EBLM J0555-57Ab was done using the Doppler method, reeling, using data from the CORALIE spectrograph.

“This star is smaller and probably fresher than many of the giant gas exoplanets that have been identified so far,” said von Boetticher. “While it is fascinating for stellar physics, it is often difficult to measure the size of low-mass low stars over many large planets.

Fortunately, we can find these little stars with planets from the research team, when orbiting a larger mother star in a binary system. This may sound incredible, but finding a star can sometimes be harder than finding a planet. ”

This newly measured star has a mass comparable to the current estimate of TRAPENSE-1, but has a radius that is approximately 30% smaller. “The smaller stars provide the optimum conditions for the discovery of terrestrial planets and the remote exploration of their atmospheres,” said co-author Amaury Triaud, a researcher at the Cambridge Institute of Astronomy.

“However, before we can study the planets, it is absolutely necessary to understand their star is fundamental.”

Uranus' magnetic field flips on and off like a light switch

Uranus’ magnetic field flips on and off like a light switch

Uranus’ magnetic field flips on and off like a light switch

Scientists have discovered that the magnetic field of Uranus is turned on and off as a light switch every day as the planet rotates. Researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology in the US Made the discovery using data from NASA’s Voyager 2 spacecraft that have passed Uranus in 1986.

“The magnetosphere is” open “in one direction, allowing the solar wind to flow into the magnetosphere, then closes, forming a shield against the solar wind and away from the planet,” according to the researchers.

This is very different from the Earth’s magnetosphere, which generally changes between opening and closing in response to changes in the solar wind.

Since the same alignment of the Earth’s magnetosphere always faces the sun, the magnetic field threaded in the ever-present solar wind must change direction to reconfigure the Earth’s field from closed to open. This often happens with strong solar storms.

Uranus establishes and becomes its side, and its magnetic field is unbalanced – it is offset and inclined 60 degrees with respect to its axis. These characteristics make the magnetic field falls asymmetrically with respect to the direction of the solar wind as the ice giant completes its complete rotation 17.24 hours.

Instead of the solar wind dictating a switch like here on Earth, changing the rapid rotation of Uranus on the strength and orientation of the field leads to a periodic open-close-opening-close scenario as it flows into The solar wind.

“Uranus is a geometric nightmare. The magnetic field falls very quickly, like a child rolling on a hill on his heels,” said Carol Paty, associate professor at the Georgia Institute of Technology.

“When the magnetized solar wind meets the turning field in the right direction, it can reconnect and the Uranus magnetosphere is the opening of the closed opening day,” he added.

The zeroing of magnetic fields is a phenomenon throughout the solar system. This is one reason why the auroras land. The researchers used computer models to simulate the planet’s global magnetosphere and to predict favorable reconnection sites.

The data collected by Voyager 2 during its flight over five days in 1986 is clogged. This is the only time a spacecraft visited.

“Perhaps what we see in Uranus and Neptune is the standard for very singular magnetosphere planets and less aligned magnetic fields,” said Xin Cao Georgia Institute of Technology.

“Understanding how these complex magnetosphere protects exoplanets from stellar radiation is of paramount importance in studying the habitability of these newly discovered worlds,” Cao said.

SpaceX will try for third Falcon 9 launch in less than two weeks

SpaceX will try for third Falcon 9 launch in less than two weeks

SpaceX will try for third Falcon 9 launch in less than two weeks

After consecutive launches over the weekend, SpaceX could begin its next Falcon 9 mission at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida Sunday with a high power Intelsat communications satellite.

Sunday take-off depend on the ability of the SpaceX launch team to prepare for the 39SC KSC start bar for another flight after the success of The June 23 bombing number of Falcon 9 with the first communications satellite belonging to Bulgaria.

A typical automatic unloading test of the nine Merlin 1D Falcon 9 engines is scheduled for Thursday.

An Intelsat spokesman confirmed Tuesday that the weather release window Sunday will open at 7:36. EDT (2336 GMT). If the flight took off on Sunday, it will be SpaceX’s third launch in just over nine days.

The Intelsat 35a satellite built by Boeing, designed for broadband data transmission, Ultra subscriptions and high definition television services for mobile and government customers will be the Sunday payload on the mission. Intelsat 35 is the fourth satellite in the epic Intelsat series with a fully digital communication payload that can be reconfigured by controllers on the ground for fast response to market demands.

35a Intelsat to replace the communications satellite Intelsat 903 at 34.5 degrees west of the position of the operator in geostationary orbit, when the speed of a spacecraft is the rotation of the Earth, which allows a telecommunications station to remain in a Fixed place Intelsat 903 was launched in March 2002 aboard a Russian Proton rocket.

The satellite will provide transatlantic communications links, reach out to customers throughout Latin America, the eastern United States and Canada, Africa and Europe.

SpaceX a pair of Falcon 9 launches from the Kennedy Space Center and Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. Consecutive flight, which took off on Friday and Sunday, respectively, including the landing of the first stage of Falcon 9 on an offshore drone.

The Friday launch of Florida with the transmission satellite BulgariaSat 1 It used a first stage Falcon 9 before, while Sunday’s mission Vandenberg was propelled by a new rocket. The Domingo Intelsat flight will also use a new manufacturing momentum.

Intelsat 35a heavyweight satellite should prevent resumption of Sunday’s first stage.

SpaceX will take a longer break between the launches of Intelsat after the flight, with the next Falcon 9 mission scheduled for August 10 Florida with the next Dragon refueling spacecraft to the International Space Station.

This will be followed by at least two Falcons 9 later in August, one more in Florida with the fifth flight of the United States Air Force X-37B space plane and with the Vandenberg Taiwan mission FORMOSAT satellite 5 Earth.




A study published in the journal Nature Climate Change shows that global sea level rise increased by 50 percent between 1993 and 2014, the latest year for which data are available. In 2014, sea levels rose by 3.3 millimeters, more than an eighth of an inch, while in 1993 they rose 2.2 millimeters.

The paper reveals that the melting of the Greenland ice sheet was the major major contributor. In 1993, it accounted for only 5 percent of the increase, but in 2014 it was responsible for a quarter of the increase.

The document examines satellite measurements and tide gauges that measure sea level in the world.
Acceleration is particularly intense on the east coast of the United States, especially for Virginia and North Carolina. Some measures suggest that in these places, sea level is increasing three times faster than the global average.

There are several reasons for this, including a shipwreck of land, caused in part by the removal of groundwater.

Due to complex ocean currents, water levels are also higher in this region than elsewhere, and the addition of freshwater to the North Atlantic Ocean by the melting of Greenland is accelerating this trend, says Larry Atkinson, a professor of oceanography At the University of Virginia, T involved in the paper.

“This new evidence of accelerated rates concerns us as we try to advise local cities and regions on what it’s all about,” Atkinson said.

The most important factor in rising sea levels is thermal expansion. As the Earth warms, the ocean warms up, and warmer water takes up more space.

The fifth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change concluded that this phenomenon accounts for 30 to 55 percent of global sea level rise, while glacier melt represents 15 to 35 percent. The main sources of this water are the ice sheets that cover Greenland and Antarctica.

As for the loss of Greenland ice, “we do not know exactly why the rate increased because ice sheets are sufficiently dynamic and complex,” says co-author Xuebin Zhang, a scientist from the Australian Scientific Research And Commonwealth Industrial. The Sydney Morning Herald.

“Based on robust estimates of the Greenland ice sheet melting … maybe if the melting of the surface and also the ice discharge into the ocean progressively”

Bliss Zhang. “Both processes produce a shift of the mass of the ice sheet from Greenland to the ocean, as long as you have the mass movement of the land to the ocean, you will get this effect lifting the sea level.”

DNA solves ancient animal riddle that Darwin couldn't

DNA solves ancient animal riddle that Darwin couldn’t

DNA solves ancient animal riddle that Darwin couldn’t

(CNN) After the last of its kind died there about 12,000 years ago, a strange animal that disturbs Charles Darwin was finally added to the tree of life, according to a new study in the journal Nature Communications.

Macrauquenia lived during the last ice age. He looked like a big camel with no hump, with a long neck like a flame and a small trunk of a nose.
Long-necked herbivores would reach the leaves of plants and shrubs through what is now South America and open landscapes of Patagonia.

“It was a fairly large quadruped, probably not very light on feet,” said Ross MacPhee, co-author and curator at the American Museum of Natural History. “His outstanding feature, however, was his nose.

We do not have soft tissue fossils, so we do not know if the nose has developed into a real trunk, like an elephant, or rather like a large tapir-like fleshy appendage horn. It would not look like something alive today. ”

The nasal opening is only between the eye sockets, rather than just above the teeth.
The legendary British scientist Darwin found the first fossil of this creature and those other extinct animals belonging to the category “Native Ungulés of South America”, in 1834.

The fossils were given to Richard Owen, a British paleontologist, to study. Neither Owen nor Darwin could clarify the combination of features of a modern Macrauchenia or simply a line of distinct mammals. But they had bones and the bones of the vertebrae to study.

The group of ungulates itself raises concerns researchers because some of them appear to be elephants, while others are more similar to moles and moles. Owen even used an old name for the mud to provide the Macrauchenia type.

“What we have known for some time is that there are many species that are placed in this group, and many of them have a very particular look,” said Michi Hofreiter, lead author of the new study and an expert on paleo-genomics at the University Of Potsdam. “All of them are off, and they do not even know if they are from a single group or belong to different phylogenetic groups.”

An earlier study tried to place Macrauchenia in the tree of life using an old collagen. The new study, by MacPhee and Hofreiter, was built in the collagen study 2015 by extracting mitochondrial DNA from a fossil found in South America. The researchers also used a new approach to recover the Macrauchenia genome even without a modern analogue.

“I am pleased that our past results of protein for Macrauchenia are checked using this evolution in the ancient DNA alignments of a deeply diverged modern mammal without close relatives,” said Frido Welker, study author Collagen 2015. ” The absence of a close relative to obtain an almost complete mitochondrial genome is impressive. ”

Prior to these studies using proteins and DNA, the arguments for which the animal belonged derived bone morphology, main possibilities.

Macrauquenia now belongs to a brother group of perisodactyls, which includes horses, rhinos and tapirs. The two separate clusters exist about 66 million years ago when massive extinction occurred when an asteroid struck Earth.

“Now we have found a place in the tree of life for this group, now we can better explain how the characteristics of these animals evolved,” Hofreiter said. “And we have lost an older branch in the tree of life of mammals when the last member of this group died.”

NASA fact-checks Anonymous on alien-life claims

NASA fact-checks Anonymous on alien-life claims

NASA fact-checks Anonymous on alien-life claims

For a while online this week, the word was that the hacker collective Anonymous might have discovered an imminent NASA announcement of the discovery of extraterrestrial life in the universe.

All of this was a big mistake for YouTube and tabloid, which was so viral, forcing the head of NASA science to take up the speech.

“Contrary to some reports, there is no pending announcement from NASA about extraterrestrial life,” said Robert Zurbuchen, associate administrator of NASA’s Monday Scientific.

Over the weekend, I saw a link to a low-quality video on the Global Anonymous YouTube channel that started circulating online.

I gave him a watch, but I did not think I would write about it because it was a pretty clear game to opinion, like so many other videos on spam in alien conspiracies and countless new false (or at least little studied and reported) that ‘I’ve seen.

The video, which has a voice with some old UFO footage and sequences of a person in a Guy Fawkes mask that comes to symbolize Anonymous, did not even present any real evidence of a new foreign plot.

Instead, it takes quotes from Zurbuchen’s public testimony to a congressional committee earlier this year, completely out of context and hints that NASA has the merchandise on extraterrestrial life and will soon walk our world with the announcement.

Scientists are aliens in the galaxy by sending strange radio signals
“We are about to make one of the most profound and unprecedented discoveries in history,” said the Zurbuchen video.

Zurbuchen spoke in the long run, as in the years or decades, but this is not the sense you get from video.

Despite all this, it is very easy to adjust by spending a few minutes watching the online testimonial, or one of Zurbuchen’s public statements in recent months, several media titles are represented that suggest Anonymous could have discovered the Great secret from outside NASA and everything has gone viral. So much so, that in itself Zurbuchen made the unusual movement of the conical form on Twitter.

It is true that NASA often talks about the possibility of extraterrestrial life in the universe. Most astronomers and scientists who spoke about the space agency and elsewhere believe that we will find strong evidence of life beyond Earth in the next decade or two or three.

In fact, it seems that every two months, NASA or another group of astronomers held another press conference on the latest discovery involving an exoplanet that could be habitable, or the basic components of life that float in the external system And promising discoveries, even arriving Porte Mars.

NASA and others usually take a moment during these occasions (or when called to testify before Congress) to say something about how we move closer and closer to the inevitable day when an announcement is made for the possible discovery of a true life Extraterrestrial – form.

Scientists are legitimately so enthusiastic and feel that it could happen relatively soon, because a number of pieces of next-generation hardware, such as the James Webb Space Telescope, will be published online in the next two years. This would allow new and powerful tools to finally be expected to report signs of a true S.E, even if it is a type of exotic microbes.

My Baby Girl The anguish of the mother of a daughter with a newborn daughter. By Dr Rama Gupta

When Neelu came to meet her parents in Panchkula in January, she was pregnant and looked broad. Otherwise sne was of small build, brown eyed and dark haired like her mother Uma. Her face was round and fair. She was a quiet child with eyes that seemed to listen. She was most conscious of what other people feel, particularly her mother. Uma adored her and she was always attentive to her. One evening when they were walking around the park, Uma told her, “Neelu, it would be great if you stay here for your delivery. Meerut does not have good medical facilities. The Chakravati nursing home at Panchkula is reputed and its gynaecologist Dr Suman is also capable…”

Interrupting her in mid-sentence Neelu said, “Mama, why don’t you speak to my mother-in-law?” Uma wanted to say, Why?

Do you really have any serious problem asking her? But Uma said quickly, “I will do.” And wondered when Neelu would decide for herself. It would be better if she called her husband Rakesh as he was the most sensible person in that business family. As Uma waited for his reply, her mind flashed back to that Sunday evening.

Uma recollected it was a bright and beautiful day. Rakesh’s family had come to see Neelu. Neelu was about 25 years of age; no good match was coming her way.

And that day Neelu was in a hurry to approve of Rakesh, the first boy who had said “Yes”. Uma implored her, “Neelu, don’t take a hasty decision. You will miss out the best that life has yet to offer you. Take your time to think about it. We have worked and worked so that you could have a better future.”

But Neelu said quickly in contempt, “Wait? What I wait for can never come.” Her voice rang with defiance, her eyes full of reproach. Her “yes” was actually more of a surrender to her fate by one too tired to wait any more.

It was but natural for parents to be upset when their children ignored their advice. The saner voice within Uma said that her daughter had the right to choose the kind of life she wanted to lead. Still forlornness descended on Uma like a shroud then
and she hoped it to lift when she would visit Nee . at her in-laws’ house in Meerut.

Seeing Uma in her house, Neelu exclaimed “What a surprise. I wasn’t expecting to see you s: soon.” Holding Neelu tightly in her arms Uma sc :

“I missed you. Are you all right?” And noticed the Neelu’s face had become more thoughtful, more solemn than what it was at Panchkula. After a • e Uma whispered to Neelu gently, “I have been meaning to ask you something. See, you are loot *c| so pale. Are you happy?” she asked struggling keep the misery out of ner voice. Neelu understo:: that her mother needed to see her happily settle: Looking into Uma’s eyes but speaking from a distance almost beyond the memory of hurt or anger, Neelu said, “Don’t worry, mom. I am jus* fine. It is so much easier to be happy t what I have.”

Uma really wanted to believe wha* Neelu was saying but she needed no 3 =~ sense to discern when the signs were □! over for her to see otherwise. She sc ••• ~ : Neelu had turned into a calm, pensive bahu with a demeanour that to Uma seemed appropriate for a dutiful da.:‘ = in-law. She marvelled at her manner c_ speech, her action, the way she wore had long plait instead of short hair. Nee was making efforts to do all the dec- -: and cooking. Though there were complaints that vegetables were too s: ~ too greasy or too bland for taste and ~e floors were either too wet or too uncie: – she didn’t say anything.

ma wanted to ask Neelu, How do you dc ~ i every day? How quietly you endure all ~ : Doesn’t it drive you crazy? But Uma did r :r say anything. It was Neelu’s life, she thought, c: she was trying to get ahead with it. What wor- e: Uma was that Neelu was not doing those nor”: things that she always did before her marriage : didn’t read as there were no English magazine: their house; never spoke in English as it offence: w. Hindi-speaking relatives; and watched only H serials which everyone else did in their family – enthusiasm for English music had also died dov.-

She didn’t step out of the house even to go for walks. Uma remembered how Neelu used to throw tantrums when her demands were not met, got her father to buy her English videos when she was back at home in Panchkula. Her time with her parents always felt natural, effortless, uncomplicated by differences and grudges or spites that infected the air at her in-laws.

And Uma remembered how they made small, harmless jokes at each other’s expense over meals and conversation always flowed. There were no arguments, no open discussions and no loud laughter any more. And Neelu made no demands on Fife and would never let others know that she too had sorrows, disappointments and that her dreams had been shattered. Uma realised how hard it was for her to do all this. Uma asked herself if it was not natural for a mother to know whether her daughter’s relations with her in-laws were cordial, strained or neutral. Had her marriage, their family and time changed her, or was she making concessions to her marriage in order to sail through life smoothly? Neelu wouldn’t say anything about them. Uma had no other means of knowing the truth. It had got Uma worried.


ma was feeling an odd sense of compulsion that day. There was something she must do. Yes, she must call Rakesh to know their decision. Her thoughts were interrupted by the phone. Who could be at this hour? she thought. The phone rang more than a dozen times before she answered.

“Hello? Mama, are you there?” said Rakesh’s voice.

“Yes, yes,” she said trying to pull herself together. “Rakesh here. Fine mama, fine. Well, I spoke to my parents and grandmother.”

“What did they say?” Uma asked.

“They are fine with Neelu staying with you for delivery.”     ?

“It is good to hear that. Thank you,” Uma put down the phone and heaved a sigh of relief.

Neelu appeared from the inside room. Umc *: : her quitkly, “I talked to Rakesh, they have no objection.”

“Are you sure?” Neelu asked in surprise.

“Of course,” Uma said.

“Well. That is absolutely amazing,” said Nee . and her face lit up and she nodded her head slightly. She looked pleased. She also the cha-:e But Uma was surprised at her grandmother consenting to Neelu’s stay with her Panchkula _ – : recalled her conversation with Rakesh’s grand: t» when she was in Meerut for the delivery of the * r child, Abha. Her grandmother-in-law had told L~ : “We don’t send bahus to their parents for chi ~ I have all my grandchildren delivered in my presence in my own house.”

Now, Neelu was with her mother for her de – But she had become quite reserved and had re;: to excessive TV viewing. Last night after puttin; Abha to bed, Neelu came to view her favourite serial in her mother’s room. Uma knew that it : not a good time to talk but between the serial couldn’t help asking Neelu about her pregnar: “Neelu, weren’t you using copper tee? How d : conceive?” Neelu said nothing and Uma also : press the question.

After a long pause, Neelu blurted out wha‘ *;: actually happened.

“Mama, for the last one year my grandmof e law was telling my mother-in-law, ‘Subha, whcr you waiting for? Why don’t you tell Rakesh to complete his family? Now he has Abha and she three years old. It is the right time to plan for re second child.’ My mother-in-law told her, ‘The. not planning the family so soon. You know, R has just started a small business. Let him settle in his new work in Bangalore. You have see- what happened to Neelu. She virtual ■ collapsed after her first baby. She : weak to bear another child.'”

However, in September, the grandmother-in-law took Subha cri Neelu with her to visit the Bala T’ : r shrine and they all stayed with Ra* e Bangalore after visiting it. She be e that this time, with the blessing of E: Triputi, the child would surely be a Neelu wished they would not hitcr hopes to it being a boy and their expectations weighed heavily on -e Time and again Uma thought of Neelu told her yesterday about this pre’e for a male child. “Well, yes, she is right. – culture it doesn’t really matter which part of “: .

you are from, this desire for a male child cuts across all castes also.” The rest of the days passed uneventfully but happily — leisurely breakfast in the morning, meals at home, sometimes late dinner in the army club after tambola, visits to Chandigarh for shopping and evenings spent listening to music or walking in the park surrounded by children and babies in prams and their chattering mothers.


eelu came in January and it was May when she was finally in Chakravati Nursing home for delivery. And the nurse, a rather young woman of 20 came and announced coldly. “Well, it is baby girl. Uma followed her into the labour room with the clothes of the baby. Leaving the newborn baby in Lima’s lap, they wheeled Neelu into the room without even saying congratulations. Neelu’s eyes were closed; she seemed to be in a state of shock.

“Neelu, congratulations,” said Uma, her face clearly showing the elation which rose within her. Uma held her hand and stroked Neelu’s forehead. After a while Neelu opened her eyes but looked bitterly disappointed. Her face quivered as she looked at her mother. Seeing something through and beyond her, Neelu asked her mother, “Did you tell my mother-in-law? What did she say? They were sure that it would be a boy.”

“Don’t worry, I will tell every one,” said Uma.

Uma sent SMSs to everyone.

In no time Renu, Sushma, Rajani, Asha, Praveen and many other friends came to the hospital with gifts. “Congratulations, Neelu.” “Thank you, aunty.” “Neelu, cheer up. Nowadays there is no difference between boys and girls.”

Uma expected them to congratulate her with a hug. She wanted them to ask, Uma, when are you celebrating her birthday? Where is our party? Ladoos won’t do. Nothing of that sort happened, Uma was upset. Sometimes, what people say upsets you and sometimes what they don’t say also upsets you.

But Uma was hiding her feelings and struggling not to express her strange sense of outrage at their remarks. ‘They are my friends with whom I spend most of my time every day. Why are they asking Neelu to be cheerful when they are feigning happiness?,’ she said to herself. For the first time she understood that they only pretended to be modern by speaking impeccable English, but in reality their conservative nature was deep-rooted. Even the tones of congratulations were low, subdued, that told a different story.

Hiding her disappointment Uma said in pleasant voice. “It has been a pleasure to have you here so soon.”

They grinned, she hugged them. They talked politely. Uma was busy gazing at them. She ve deferentially but without understanding. Strarge . enough, she was enjoying little of what they we’r saying. Rather, she was attentive to the delirious cacophony that busted upon her from the other room. And she peered into other rooms and witnessed families eating sweets on the birth of i baby boy and heard them chatting excitedly, laughing amidst noisy and animated conversa* : – But nothing like that was happening in her rocThis killed her efforts at fine conversation.

She didn’t want to hurt those whom she lover only thanked them for their visit. “Please let us l’ if there is anything we can do for you,” they as- sz out of courtesy before leaving the clinic.

“I will surely do that,” Uma said and could breathe freely only when they were out of the r Neelu followed her gaze to the baby in the c’; her eyes also showed hatred for their false sentiments. She didn’t seem to like their remark; either, thought Uma. After a minute or so Nee . asked hesitantly, “Are the girls so unequal in ou society?” Without waiting for an answer she continued, “It is usual for the ayahs and sweepev come for baksheesh. When they didn’t come, • had to call them. Mama, did you hear what the. said pocketing the tips? ‘If it were a boy we wc. : have asked for it. There was no need for that. Mama, you noticed papa didn’t like it either as ‘; had kept enough money in change for giving the Uma kept quiet but warmth radiated through heeyes.


hey brought the baby home, neighbours v = them, repeated the benefits of having a c child as if to console them on the birth of baby girl in the family. One neighbour even narrated, “Uma, you know Puneet Verma has t- his parents out and rented out that annexe they living in. Now Malika has brought them to live » t» her at Panchkula. What a shame on boys!” Arc Sharan narrated what she had read in the newspaper that day. It was getting very difficul* Uma to listen to this girl-child thing but she was keeping her cool as Neelu’s mother-in-law Subf: had come.

One day Uma was making preparations for chathi in the puja room when Subha came to the room and said sarcastically, “Chathi puja is dc_e only for boys.” Even after seeing the hurt in Um: eyes, she said, “I am surprised how Neelu got c daughter though we had given her sex selection medicine. My elder sister-in-law also gave the medicine to her daughter-in-law and she gave c to a baby boy.” Uma was taken aback.

Human reactions are so unpredictable and

difficult to handle. Uma had taken the flak from others calmly but she could not bear Neelu’s mother- in-law’s remarks. They were making her angrier and angrier. However, some things become clearer after a lapse of time. After a while, when Uma could see things in their true sense she understood that this simple woman of a small town shared the same biases of modern urban middle class educated women against the baby girl. She no longer expected any understanding from her mother-in-law while her own friends failed to show that.

t was not easy to keep silent. Mothers instinctively sense when their daughters are not happy but they buy excuses and pretend that everything is

Uma was no different. She had felt things those past few days that she had never felt before.

After her mother-in-law left for Meerut, Uma went to Neelu’s room. Locking her arms tightly around her neck, she said in a disconcerted tone, “Now I understand why these people who denied you your honeymoon, had taken you for this trip to Mysore and Triputi.” For the first time since her marriage, Neelu cried bitterly and through her sobs said, “Mama, I have no idea what I have got myself into but I am feeling exhausted,” and at once became quiet.

Neelu rested her baby’s head on her arm and for the first time had a really close look at the baby, her dark hair, thick lashed brown eyes, dimples on her red cheeks. Her love came up hot, in spite of everything; this child seemed to draw her innermost


resentment out of her. Neelu held her close to he’ breast. With all her force, with all her soul, she would make up to her for having brought her the world, 4\leelu thought. Looking at Neelu smi -: at her child, Uma had a glimpse of the mother T-e-e would be — a mother who would stand like a : shaping her daughter’s future. There was some” -: deep in her core that neither her in-laws no sodewould be able to break. This budding of her motherly love embedded in the earthly pain wo. : be Ashatha’s salvation one day, Uma thought c: caught Neelu’s eyes drifting again and again rc ~n child sleeping in her arms. When the child at :r sank in her arms; Neelu put her to bed and dromes off at about midnight.

When Neelu got up, Uma sensed from her tc’e that she was displeased about something. V\ he~ – her husband forgot to call her or what happens: zn chathi day bothering her, Uma couldn’t tell.

Neelu stopped and turned to her mother unfczas “What were you talking about motherhood lar night? It is the greatest experience a woman he: t is sheer nonsense, mom. You don’t know anytr -: about this, mom,” Neelu said, her anger rising. I : not Uma think there was no anger in her daue’e There was a time when Uma would have riser *: such remarks and got irritated but that was yecr: ago, before Neelu’s marriage.

“Well,” Uma said, despair choking her worc: her eyes wet with tears.

eelu looked her in the eyes and said, : :: a don’t look so miserable, mama. I need *c ■= j you the cruel truth today. Nobody not e-s* you, mom, bothered to notice how I was unde­pressure during the months of pregnancy, hov. lived in fear of their shifting moods, their temperament, their taunts about my inability fc r. * the house on my own, how I coped with the fc~ what adjustments I had to make and now afte- ~e delivery, this girl issue.” Neelu continued, “Yc. : not prepare me for this. Mom, you never did. ‘ unfair, mom. All those years I was alone and >:. did not care what I thought and how I lived. N: suddenly, what right have you got to talk abo.’ gender inequality when you failed to pay eqic attention to me — your second daughter? W”: : terrible thing it was for me to know that my mc*=r doesn’t love me and to suffer the pain of not ce -: loved. Why did you have me, when you have : – all your love to other children? What an unna. : thing for a mother! Being an average girl in a of two other intelligent siblings, I suppressed ~ : urge a long time back to say anything about r ■ Now I am not sure if this was right,” her word: :zn clear and ringing.

When Neelu finished speaking, her heart was pounding and her mouth was parched. It took Uma a moment to register what Neelu had just said.

Neelu had never before spoken in that manner. After a while, Uma leaned forward and said, “I can’t understand why you talk like that.” She touched her shoulder but Neelu flinched and drew away. Uma dropped her hand too.


here was in Uma’s eyes a look of disbelief that lasted for a moment or two, before it was replaced by shock. Uma’s lips trembled, her face broke into a frown and she buried her face in her hands, dread filled her chest, ripping something from her. Uma was too stunned to understand Neelu’s boldness and then her look of apprehension turned into anger. It was not her daughter’s face she saw but a face of unspoken grievances that found a target to focus all her simmering anger on and Uma saw no trace of respect in Neelu’s eyes for her.

Uma sighed and slumped in her chair.

She remembered how she had shaped her entire life round this thankless task of bringing up Neelu and in her own way, of loving her. And this was the reward for everything she had endured. Uma made an effort to open her mouth to say to Neelu,

You are such a huge part of my life. We have seen each other pass through both good times and bad. I will never stop loving you. Please don’t taint my job of this baby. But she said nothing.

Sne knew that children these days blame the parents if something went amiss in their life but never give a thought to all the sacrifices, all the self- denial and all the trouble they endure in bringing them up. No matter what Uma did to please them, no matter how thoroughly she fulfilled all their demands, it was not enough. Neelu was now a mother, Uma said to herself. How strange she was unable to see the sacrifices her own mother had to make for all these years. At that time she saw Neelu coming with her husband towards her before leaving for Meerut. There was no locking of her arms around Uma’s neck, no tears, no smiles and no whispered promises of her coming soon.

Uma’s eyes threatened to well up and she knew how hard she was struggling to be brave. Her knees weakened, Uma wanted to reach for Neelu’s arm, her shoulder, something to lean on. But she did not; she stood perfectly still and looked at Neelu. In silence Neelu left with that unforgiving look in her eyes.

As Uma watched them walking away, a shudder passed through her, a current of something sad and and forlorn and she looked shaken. Even then Uma

wished she could see Neelu and wished to hec _e sound of her daughter’s laugh again. She wis-e: Neelu to Yisit her with her husband to see Ash;- : growing up. She would have liked that very mua t be old and play with them. She feared she wot : never see her again and would never play with Neelu’s grandchildren.

Now all sorts of questions raced through her mind. Had she been a complacent mother, she asked herself. Had she been such a dreadful r:~e unmindful of the pain of Neelu? Had she taker :. her guilt of having the second girl, Neelu, anc —e– tried to forget it all? What harmful things had s*e unwillingly done to this daughter that she was -;■* forgiven? These unanswered questions and the silence were all too painful for Uma. There we-e days when Uma believed she was being punis’e: for what she had done to Neelu and $*e could not forgive herself. She had la.g-e: at her friends and now she was one ■: was under the microscope of her da.: – – she was the one to prove her mother -::

In the darkness of her room, she la> awake with the demons of her own be no courage to confront them and live -e again. The mere thought of resuming -er old pattern of life seemed so exhaus* -: tc Uma. She had to make enormous effc~ Ml get out of bed, to do the laundry, to ~: i* meals and she found it difficult to slee: : nights. On other days a voice inside *e tried to soothe her with consolation t-r- A is very complicated to understand bi- – goes on moving forward, unmindful c* these crises. Mechanically, Uma would go ove- : *: over on this scene. She feared she might lose -e nerve if she let her mind wander.

ne day, when Uma got up in the mornirc there was a message from Aruna, her be-: in Mumbai on the cellphone, a card fro” •- brother in Europe. The phone rang, Uma picke: r and heard the voice of her son. Lucky, who wc: calling from the USA, “Mama, I was trying to -ecd| you for so many days, but you were not picking – phone. Are you all right?” Questions of how she was were met with vague but cheerless replies “Doing fine, I am fine. Yes, I am. Yes, Neelu he: gone. I will move on. Oh, I will be fine,” said – _ to Lucky, laughing nervously, to fill the melanc: with aimless banter. By instinct she kept the pr:*i clasped to her ear long after Lucky had hung uc and looked at her house. When Uma found the house empty, her disquiet heart began to bea- quickly and her mind got lost in their childhood memories.

have a fabulous blow-out that was attended by bold-faced American names like Bill Clinton, the model Patricia Velasquez and a coterie of Indian dignitaries and the spiritual guru Dr Deepak Chopra.

In course of conducting lavish weddings, a huge amount of money is pumped into the economy through demand for products and services: a caterer, decorator, florist, jeweller, beautician or henna artist would make enough money to increase employment and spending substantially, boosting demand and supply. Hollywood stars Michael Douglas and Catherina Zeta-Jones might have set a precedent – of celebrity to-be-weds cashing in on their popularity to make a quick buck – when they sold exclusive reporting rights to a chosen publication. More recently, Liz Hurley and Arun Nayar sold publicity rights to a magazine when they got married in lavish style in Jodhpur.

So, getting hitched, hopefully for life, has never been a simple business with us Indians who love spending lavishly on the once-in-a- lifetime affair – a wedding. While the super-rich in India have always seen marriage as the perfect occasion to show off their wealth, today, the middle-class too are going for ostentatious weddings.

A lavish marriage celebration in India could run up a bill of more than a crore of rupees, depending on the scale and specifics. There are add­ons like the purchase of fine silks and designer garments, accessories and gifts, guest accommodation in hotels, transport arrangements and more. The great Indian wedding tamasha is getting bigger. It’s no longer about splendid decorations or huge amounts of dowry. It’s also about locales now. The more bizarre, the better. And that’s what upper middle- class Indians are splurging in.

Marriages in seven-star hotels and magnificent farmhouses are passe. Now they chug along in trains or are conducted on hilltops, isolated island or in floating pandals in the middle of shimmering lakes. Quite the stuff of dreams, isn’t it? Just be prepared to pay anything between Rs 7 lakh and Rs 5 crore.