Uranus' magnetic field flips on and off like a light switch

Uranus’ magnetic field flips on and off like a light switch

Uranus’ magnetic field flips on and off like a light switch

Scientists have discovered that the magnetic field of Uranus is turned on and off as a light switch every day as the planet rotates. Researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology in the US Made the discovery using data from NASA’s Voyager 2 spacecraft that have passed Uranus in 1986.

“The magnetosphere is” open “in one direction, allowing the solar wind to flow into the magnetosphere, then closes, forming a shield against the solar wind and away from the planet,” according to the researchers.

This is very different from the Earth’s magnetosphere, which generally changes between opening and closing in response to changes in the solar wind.

Since the same alignment of the Earth’s magnetosphere always faces the sun, the magnetic field threaded in the ever-present solar wind must change direction to reconfigure the Earth’s field from closed to open. This often happens with strong solar storms.

Uranus establishes and becomes its side, and its magnetic field is unbalanced – it is offset and inclined 60 degrees with respect to its axis. These characteristics make the magnetic field falls asymmetrically with respect to the direction of the solar wind as the ice giant completes its complete rotation 17.24 hours.

Instead of the solar wind dictating a switch like here on Earth, changing the rapid rotation of Uranus on the strength and orientation of the field leads to a periodic open-close-opening-close scenario as it flows into The solar wind.

“Uranus is a geometric nightmare. The magnetic field falls very quickly, like a child rolling on a hill on his heels,” said Carol Paty, associate professor at the Georgia Institute of Technology.

“When the magnetized solar wind meets the turning field in the right direction, it can reconnect and the Uranus magnetosphere is the opening of the closed opening day,” he added.

The zeroing of magnetic fields is a phenomenon throughout the solar system. This is one reason why the auroras land. The researchers used computer models to simulate the planet’s global magnetosphere and to predict favorable reconnection sites.

The data collected by Voyager 2 during its flight over five days in 1986 is clogged. This is the only time a spacecraft visited.

“Perhaps what we see in Uranus and Neptune is the standard for very singular magnetosphere planets and less aligned magnetic fields,” said Xin Cao Georgia Institute of Technology.

“Understanding how these complex magnetosphere protects exoplanets from stellar radiation is of paramount importance in studying the habitability of these newly discovered worlds,” Cao said.

SpaceX will try for third Falcon 9 launch in less than two weeks

SpaceX will try for third Falcon 9 launch in less than two weeks

SpaceX will try for third Falcon 9 launch in less than two weeks

After consecutive launches over the weekend, SpaceX could begin its next Falcon 9 mission at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida Sunday with a high power Intelsat communications satellite.

Sunday take-off depend on the ability of the SpaceX launch team to prepare for the 39SC KSC start bar for another flight after the success of The June 23 bombing number of Falcon 9 with the first communications satellite belonging to Bulgaria.

A typical automatic unloading test of the nine Merlin 1D Falcon 9 engines is scheduled for Thursday.

An Intelsat spokesman confirmed Tuesday that the weather release window Sunday will open at 7:36. EDT (2336 GMT). If the flight took off on Sunday, it will be SpaceX’s third launch in just over nine days.

The Intelsat 35a satellite built by Boeing, designed for broadband data transmission, Ultra subscriptions and high definition television services for mobile and government customers will be the Sunday payload on the mission. Intelsat 35 is the fourth satellite in the epic Intelsat series with a fully digital communication payload that can be reconfigured by controllers on the ground for fast response to market demands.

35a Intelsat to replace the communications satellite Intelsat 903 at 34.5 degrees west of the position of the operator in geostationary orbit, when the speed of a spacecraft is the rotation of the Earth, which allows a telecommunications station to remain in a Fixed place Intelsat 903 was launched in March 2002 aboard a Russian Proton rocket.

The satellite will provide transatlantic communications links, reach out to customers throughout Latin America, the eastern United States and Canada, Africa and Europe.

SpaceX a pair of Falcon 9 launches from the Kennedy Space Center and Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. Consecutive flight, which took off on Friday and Sunday, respectively, including the landing of the first stage of Falcon 9 on an offshore drone.

The Friday launch of Florida with the transmission satellite BulgariaSat 1 It used a first stage Falcon 9 before, while Sunday’s mission Vandenberg was propelled by a new rocket. The Domingo Intelsat flight will also use a new manufacturing momentum.

Intelsat 35a heavyweight satellite should prevent resumption of Sunday’s first stage.

SpaceX will take a longer break between the launches of Intelsat after the flight, with the next Falcon 9 mission scheduled for August 10 Florida with the next Dragon refueling spacecraft to the International Space Station.

This will be followed by at least two Falcons 9 later in August, one more in Florida with the fifth flight of the United States Air Force X-37B space plane and with the Vandenberg Taiwan mission FORMOSAT satellite 5 Earth.




A study published in the journal Nature Climate Change shows that global sea level rise increased by 50 percent between 1993 and 2014, the latest year for which data are available. In 2014, sea levels rose by 3.3 millimeters, more than an eighth of an inch, while in 1993 they rose 2.2 millimeters.

The paper reveals that the melting of the Greenland ice sheet was the major major contributor. In 1993, it accounted for only 5 percent of the increase, but in 2014 it was responsible for a quarter of the increase.

The document examines satellite measurements and tide gauges that measure sea level in the world.
Acceleration is particularly intense on the east coast of the United States, especially for Virginia and North Carolina. Some measures suggest that in these places, sea level is increasing three times faster than the global average.

There are several reasons for this, including a shipwreck of land, caused in part by the removal of groundwater.

Due to complex ocean currents, water levels are also higher in this region than elsewhere, and the addition of freshwater to the North Atlantic Ocean by the melting of Greenland is accelerating this trend, says Larry Atkinson, a professor of oceanography At the University of Virginia, T involved in the paper.

“This new evidence of accelerated rates concerns us as we try to advise local cities and regions on what it’s all about,” Atkinson said.

The most important factor in rising sea levels is thermal expansion. As the Earth warms, the ocean warms up, and warmer water takes up more space.

The fifth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change concluded that this phenomenon accounts for 30 to 55 percent of global sea level rise, while glacier melt represents 15 to 35 percent. The main sources of this water are the ice sheets that cover Greenland and Antarctica.

As for the loss of Greenland ice, “we do not know exactly why the rate increased because ice sheets are sufficiently dynamic and complex,” says co-author Xuebin Zhang, a scientist from the Australian Scientific Research And Commonwealth Industrial. The Sydney Morning Herald.

“Based on robust estimates of the Greenland ice sheet melting … maybe if the melting of the surface and also the ice discharge into the ocean progressively”

Bliss Zhang. “Both processes produce a shift of the mass of the ice sheet from Greenland to the ocean, as long as you have the mass movement of the land to the ocean, you will get this effect lifting the sea level.”

DNA solves ancient animal riddle that Darwin couldn't

DNA solves ancient animal riddle that Darwin couldn’t

DNA solves ancient animal riddle that Darwin couldn’t

(CNN) After the last of its kind died there about 12,000 years ago, a strange animal that disturbs Charles Darwin was finally added to the tree of life, according to a new study in the journal Nature Communications.

Macrauquenia lived during the last ice age. He looked like a big camel with no hump, with a long neck like a flame and a small trunk of a nose.
Long-necked herbivores would reach the leaves of plants and shrubs through what is now South America and open landscapes of Patagonia.

“It was a fairly large quadruped, probably not very light on feet,” said Ross MacPhee, co-author and curator at the American Museum of Natural History. “His outstanding feature, however, was his nose.

We do not have soft tissue fossils, so we do not know if the nose has developed into a real trunk, like an elephant, or rather like a large tapir-like fleshy appendage horn. It would not look like something alive today. ”

The nasal opening is only between the eye sockets, rather than just above the teeth.
The legendary British scientist Darwin found the first fossil of this creature and those other extinct animals belonging to the category “Native Ungul├ęs of South America”, in 1834.

The fossils were given to Richard Owen, a British paleontologist, to study. Neither Owen nor Darwin could clarify the combination of features of a modern Macrauchenia or simply a line of distinct mammals. But they had bones and the bones of the vertebrae to study.

The group of ungulates itself raises concerns researchers because some of them appear to be elephants, while others are more similar to moles and moles. Owen even used an old name for the mud to provide the Macrauchenia type.

“What we have known for some time is that there are many species that are placed in this group, and many of them have a very particular look,” said Michi Hofreiter, lead author of the new study and an expert on paleo-genomics at the University Of Potsdam. “All of them are off, and they do not even know if they are from a single group or belong to different phylogenetic groups.”

An earlier study tried to place Macrauchenia in the tree of life using an old collagen. The new study, by MacPhee and Hofreiter, was built in the collagen study 2015 by extracting mitochondrial DNA from a fossil found in South America. The researchers also used a new approach to recover the Macrauchenia genome even without a modern analogue.

“I am pleased that our past results of protein for Macrauchenia are checked using this evolution in the ancient DNA alignments of a deeply diverged modern mammal without close relatives,” said Frido Welker, study author Collagen 2015. ” The absence of a close relative to obtain an almost complete mitochondrial genome is impressive. ”

Prior to these studies using proteins and DNA, the arguments for which the animal belonged derived bone morphology, main possibilities.

Macrauquenia now belongs to a brother group of perisodactyls, which includes horses, rhinos and tapirs. The two separate clusters exist about 66 million years ago when massive extinction occurred when an asteroid struck Earth.

“Now we have found a place in the tree of life for this group, now we can better explain how the characteristics of these animals evolved,” Hofreiter said. “And we have lost an older branch in the tree of life of mammals when the last member of this group died.”

NASA fact-checks Anonymous on alien-life claims

NASA fact-checks Anonymous on alien-life claims

NASA fact-checks Anonymous on alien-life claims

For a while online this week, the word was that the hacker collective Anonymous might have discovered an imminent NASA announcement of the discovery of extraterrestrial life in the universe.

All of this was a big mistake for YouTube and tabloid, which was so viral, forcing the head of NASA science to take up the speech.

“Contrary to some reports, there is no pending announcement from NASA about extraterrestrial life,” said Robert Zurbuchen, associate administrator of NASA’s Monday Scientific.

Over the weekend, I saw a link to a low-quality video on the Global Anonymous YouTube channel that started circulating online.

I gave him a watch, but I did not think I would write about it because it was a pretty clear game to opinion, like so many other videos on spam in alien conspiracies and countless new false (or at least little studied and reported) that ‘I’ve seen.

The video, which has a voice with some old UFO footage and sequences of a person in a Guy Fawkes mask that comes to symbolize Anonymous, did not even present any real evidence of a new foreign plot.

Instead, it takes quotes from Zurbuchen’s public testimony to a congressional committee earlier this year, completely out of context and hints that NASA has the merchandise on extraterrestrial life and will soon walk our world with the announcement.

Scientists are aliens in the galaxy by sending strange radio signals
“We are about to make one of the most profound and unprecedented discoveries in history,” said the Zurbuchen video.

Zurbuchen spoke in the long run, as in the years or decades, but this is not the sense you get from video.

Despite all this, it is very easy to adjust by spending a few minutes watching the online testimonial, or one of Zurbuchen’s public statements in recent months, several media titles are represented that suggest Anonymous could have discovered the Great secret from outside NASA and everything has gone viral. So much so, that in itself Zurbuchen made the unusual movement of the conical form on Twitter.

It is true that NASA often talks about the possibility of extraterrestrial life in the universe. Most astronomers and scientists who spoke about the space agency and elsewhere believe that we will find strong evidence of life beyond Earth in the next decade or two or three.

In fact, it seems that every two months, NASA or another group of astronomers held another press conference on the latest discovery involving an exoplanet that could be habitable, or the basic components of life that float in the external system And promising discoveries, even arriving Porte Mars.

NASA and others usually take a moment during these occasions (or when called to testify before Congress) to say something about how we move closer and closer to the inevitable day when an announcement is made for the possible discovery of a true life Extraterrestrial – form.

Scientists are legitimately so enthusiastic and feel that it could happen relatively soon, because a number of pieces of next-generation hardware, such as the James Webb Space Telescope, will be published online in the next two years. This would allow new and powerful tools to finally be expected to report signs of a true S.E, even if it is a type of exotic microbes.